1. Diopters are inverse meters (remember 100cm = 1m)

D = 1 / Meters; Conversely Meters = 1 / D
2. Point of refraction and *guideline for differential strength* (still depends on distance/some people are exceptions)
s= distance to object (for distance just put in large number)(meters)
s'= distance to point of refraction (for myopes how far can see clear) (meters)(put in as negative)
f= focal length of lens (meters)
P= power of lens (Diopters)
1/f = (1/s) + (1/s')
1/f = P
3. Visual acuity equation (consistent units)
(Font height / distance to sign)(180/60pi) = arcminutes = a
Note: 5Arcminutes = 20/20
Set up proportion a/(20/x) = 5/ (20/20)
3a. Visual acuity (mm/meters)
(Font height {mm}/distance to sign{m}) * 13.75 = denominator x of 20/x
3b. Visual acuity (in/feet)
(Font height {in}/distance to sign{ft.}) * 1146 = denominator x of 20/x
^^Thank you to Val (what is last name?) for this impromptu Snellen equation. Reminder from Jake: With text that we are familiar the brain may clear up that text more than our vision actually operates at.^^
4. Average axial length accomodation/rate of change
Typical emmetropic eye = 25mm = 25,000microns
{change} in axial length of 1mm = 3D
If someone with typical eyes wanted to adapt say 20/20 to .25 less 
normalized within 3-4 months
would need to decrease axial length 0.083mm
about 0.92microns/day - 0.69microns/day average

* Credit: Mark Podowski